Carbon Reduction Simulation

Agave is a family of short, spiky plants native to the southern USA and Mexico. Traditionally, extracts of agave are used to make Tequila, but agave is also being researched as a large-scale source of ethanol for use in biofuels.
alternative energy
Much of the world's electricity is generated from fossil fuels such as coal, oil, or natural gas; so alternative energy in this case refers to sources of electricity that do not burn fossil fuels as a primary energy source.
Anthropogenic means caused by humans.
Aviation refers to transportation by air.
A battery stores electrical energy in a chemical form.
To do with people's behavior.
binary cycle
A binary cycle geothermal power plant uses warm water from underground to vaporize a low-boiling compound, which then is used to generate electricity. This is different from traditional geothermal power plants, in which the water itself is vaporised.
Produced from living things.
Butane is a small hydrocarbon with the formula C4H10.
carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a common greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere by burning carbon-based fuel and numerous other processes.
carbon neutral
Not releasing any carbon; or absorbing as much carbon as is released.
An area of land being used to grow food crops or other agricultural products.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFnClm) are a broad group of compounds that contain carbon, chlorine and/or fluorine. They have been used as refrigerants and aerosol propellants, and they are potent greenhouse gasses and ozone depleters.
climate change
Statistically significant changes to Earth's weather patterns that occur over long periods of time, from decades to millions of years.
Coal is a naturally occurring solid hydrocarbon mineral that can be burned as a fuel.
A commercial building is used for business or industry, not as a home for people.
compact fluorescent light
A compact fluorescent light (CFL) runs an electrical current through a gas filled tube to produce light.
Decommissioning refers to closing and demolishing a facility, and safely disposing of the debris.
distribution system
The electricity distribution system refers to the infrastructure that transfers electricity from the generating station to where the electricity will be used. It includes transmission cables, transformers, and any electricity storage systems in use.
Electricity refers to the presence and motion of electric charge. It is used as a source of energy for much of the world, and generating it can have significant environmental effects.
Electrolysis refers to the use of an electric current to drive a chemical reaction.
The process of being worn away by wind, water, or other processes.
Ethane is a small hydrocarbon with the formula C2H6.
Ethanol is a small organic alcohol with the chemical formula C2H6O. It can be produced from the fermentation of plant matter.
A feedstock is a raw material used in an industrial process.
Fission is the process by which a nucleus breaks apart into two smaller nuclei, releasing energy.
floor area
The floor area of a building is the sum of the floor area of each of the floors in a building.
A forest refers to a large area of trees and other vegetation.
fossil fuel
A fuel formed over millions of years from decayed organic matter. Includes coal, oil, and natural gas.
fuel consumption
Fuel consumption is the amount of fuel it takes to drive a vehicle a given distance. Fuel economy, a related term, is the distance a vehicle can drive on a certain amount of fuel.
Gasoline is a common vehicle fuel. It is mostly hydrocarbons, with many other additives.
A gigatonne (Gt) is one billion tonnes, or 1015 grams. Typically, concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is measured in parts per million (ppm), whereas Gt of carbon is used for amounts of carbon flux and storage.
Something emitting light because it is heated. An incandescent light bulb applies an electric current to a tungsten filament, causing it to emit light.
Irregular; not continuous or steady.
Producing light
The lifetime of building is the amount of time from its construction to demolition.
light emitting diode
A light emitting diode (LED) uses electricity flowing across a semiconductor junction to generate light.
marine transportation
Marine transportation refers to transportation by boat.
Methane (CH4) is the simplest hydrocarbon. It is released by decaying biomass, among other sources, and is a greenhouse gas.
To make less serious or painful. In this case, mitigate refers to human intervention intended to slow or undo the effects of climate change.
molar mass
The mass of a substance (in grams) divided by the amount of that substance (in moles).
natural gas
A naturally occurring fossil fuel gas containing mostly light hydrocarbons with small amounts of other gases.
Small and insignificant.
nitrogen oxides
Common nitrogen oxides include nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). They are greenhouse gasses and have impacts on human health.
Octane is a liquid hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C8H18.
Ozone (O3) is a colourless gas. When present in the stratosphere, ozone blocks incoming ultraviolet radiation; but at ground level, ozone is a serious air pollutant.
Photovoltaic solar cells use layers of semiconductors to generate electricity from sunlight.
Photocatalytic solar technologies use sunlight to drive a chemical reaction to produce electricity or fuels.
Propane is a small hydrocarbon with the formula C3H8.
Referring to some characteristic or quality of an object.
Referring to the number or quantity of an object.
rail transportation
Rail transportation refers to transportation by train.
The Representative Concentration Pathways are a series of possible climate futures used for climate modeling and research. The four scenarios are RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5; the number indicates the increase in radiative forcing between pre-industrial times and 2100, in units of W/m2. RCP8.5 represents the worst case scenario in which global carbon emissions continue to increase without mitigation; whereas RCP2.6 sees global carbon emissions drop to zero by 2090.
Sources of energy that are regenerated or regrown on the order of years.
A reservoir is a large artificial lake. Hydroelectric power can be generated by allowing water to flow out of a reservoir and through a turbine.
A residential building is a building in which people live.
rice paddy
A rice paddy is a flooded field in which rice is grown.
A run-of-river hydroelectric power plant uses the natural flow of a river or stream to generate electricity, without the use of large reservoir.
sulfur hexafluoride
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a dense, odorless gas. It is used in various industrial applications, and is a potent greenhouse gas.
solar concentrator
Solar concentrator technologies use mirrors or lenses to focus sunlight onto a point. This increases the efficiency of other solar technologies at that point.
solar flux
The amount of sunlight that falls on a certain area of ground.
solar thermal
Solar thermal technologies use sunlight to produce heat, which can be used to generate electricity or serve other purposes.
On land.
We can model a coal-fired power plant as a Carnot engine: an idealized heat engine that transfers energy from a hot object to a cold object and does work in the process. The efficiency of a Carnot engine is determined by the temperature of the hot and cold objects (in kelvin): eff=1-(Tcold/Thot).
tidal hydroelectric
Tidal hydroelectricity uses the flow of the tides to generate electricity.
Tillage refers to act of plowing soil in preparation for planting seeds.
Thorium is a dense, radioactive metal. Thorium-233 is being studied as a replacement for uranium-235 in nuclear power plants.
Uranium is a dense, radioactive metal. One isotope of uranium, uranium-235, is used as fuel in nuclear power plants.
Ventilation refers to the process of moving air into or out of a building.
A watt (W) is a measure of energy transfer; one watt is equal to one joule per second.
wave hydroelectric
Wave hydroelectricity uses the energy of waves on oceans or large lakes to generate electricity.